Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term that refers to infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and other reproductive organs in women. PID is a common and serious complication of some sexually transmitted diseases, especially Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, when left untreated. Approximately 4.2% of US women report being treated for PID. ((Leichliter JS, Chandra A, Aral SO (2013). Correlates of self-reported pelvic inflammatory disease treatment in sexually experienced reproductive-aged women in the United States, 1995 and 2006–2010. Sex Trans Dis 40(5):413-8.))
Often goes undiagnosed and can lead to further serious infection. PID is a cause of infertility, ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy growing outside the uterus, typically in a fallopian tube), and chronic pelvic pain. Women with PID experience:
- Ectopic pregnancy 6 times more often.
- Infertility, from 8% increased risk after one episode of PID to 40% after three episodes.
- Chronic pelvic pain, 18% greater risk after one episode of PID. ((Westrom L, Joesoef R, Reynolds G, et al. (1992). Pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility. Sex Trans Dis, 19(4):185-92; Westrom, L (1975). Effect of acute pelvic inflammatory disease on fertility. Am J of Obstet & Gynecol, 121:707-13.))
If left untreated:
Can cause permanent damage to female reproductive organs.