Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

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Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term that refers to infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and other reproductive organs in women. PID is a common and serious complication of some sexually transmitted diseases, especially Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, when left untreated. Approximately 4.2% of US women report being treated for PID. 1


Often goes undiagnosed and can lead to further serious infection. PID is a cause of infertility, ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy growing outside the uterus, typically in a fallopian tube), and chronic pelvic pain. Women with PID experience:

  • Ectopic pregnancy 6 times more often.
  • Infertility, from 8% increased risk after one episode of PID to 40%  after three episodes.
  • Chronic pelvic pain, 18% greater risk after one episode of PID. 2
  • If left untreated: can cause permanent damage to female reproductive organs.

Medically Reviewed By:


1 Leichliter, J.S., Chandra, A., Aral, S.O., (2013). Correlates of self-reported pelvic inflammatory disease treatment in sexually experienced reproductive-aged women in the United States, 1995 and 2006–2010. Sex Trans Dis; 40(5):413-418.

2 Westrom, L., Joesoef, R., Reynolds, G., et al., (1992). Pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility. Sex Trans Dis; 19(4):185-92.

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